Tuesday, July 7, 2020

Hitler And Stalin Roots Of Evil - Free Essay Example

There are a multitude of methods to which an individuals personality, behavior, and ethical leadership can influence an organization. First, this essay will analyze the distinct leadership characteristics of Hitler and Stalin via various lessons throughout chapter 2 of the textbook. Then, this essay will evaluate the personality traits, motives, and cognitive determinants that were representative of Hitler and Stalins leadership roles. Next, this essay will examine the significance of influence relating to the moral intensity, moral sensitivity, and organizational situation on these two leaders. This essay will then conclude with a comparable real-life scenario to this analysis. Lesson 2-1a defines several personality traits which contribute to the successfulness of a leader. While Stalin and Hitler lacked a moral compass, they were tremendously successful in their leadership roles. They shared personal traits and interpersonal behaviors such as self-confidence, enthusiasm, assertiveness, emotional intelligence, and extraversion (Dubrin, 2019, figure 2-1). Stalin and Hitler were mass murderers; contributing to more than 60 million innocent deaths; however, they could inspire millions of people to embrace their horrendous actions as necessities for a better future and world. Through these abhorrent actions, Stalin and Hitler effectively changed the world and will forever be disparagingly memorialized in history. Both Hitler and Stalin did possess high levels of self-awareness when it came to how the masses reacted to Hitler and Stalins actions. Both men used relationship management to convince the people that they had a calling to serve their people and they believed they were better suited, more than anyone else, to carry out leadership roles. As to Hitler and Stalins motives; the video discusses how both men were raised by abusive fathers, had deprived childhoods, and eventually grew to have women issues, suffer from paranoia, and disdain for their physical attributes. These are all attributes that would signify low self-esteem, introversion, and inadequacy; however, these two leaders used these particularities as fuel to advance themselves. Hitler and Stalin became leaders with high power motives (Dublin, 2019, lesson 2-2a). These men clearly possessed personalized power motives; however, they both believed they were following a more socialized power motive. Hitler and Stalin actually presumed that killing those people contributed to the good of their countries. Stalin changed his name because the name Stalin meant man of steel (Emile, 2016). Hitler and Stalin had an insatiable lust to dominate and show everyone how powerful they were. Both men had an achievement motivation drive to reshape their country and deliberately removed any opposing obstacles, whether it be a person, idea, or a physical structure. It is possible the influence from Hitler and Stalins heredity and surrounding environment may have influenced their abusive, brutal, and paranoid reign; however, there is no denying they were fully aware of how their actions and had no mindfulness or social awareness (Dublin, 2019, 2-1b). Hitler used his emotional intelligence to determine which aspects of his countrys culture he could distort. Germany was ravaged by WW1. People were poor and frustrated. Hitler used this combined with his hatred for Jewish people to mislead the Germans to believe all their financial and country issues stemmed from the inferior Jewish community. The people of his country were despite and needed something to unite them and sadly, this was as good a reason as any. Similarly, Stalin also united the Russian people after the revolution. Stalin rose to power and held a powerful, highly respected position, he decided to assassinate any possible enemiesand even friend who became too popular (Emile, 2016). People became scared of him and would not challenge his actions. Years ago, my manager was replaced by a Lebanese manager who had never worked in the United States. He worked for our company, which is an international company, for many years and was very good friends with the COO. The COO was of course, best friends with the CEO, which gave both men high status. Unfortunately, he was raised in a very strict home where the women stayed home, had children, went to church, and the men essentially ruled the house and provided (as they saw fit) for the family. He was not thrilled to meet our group which consisted of 4 women and one male. He instantly promoted the male over the rest of us even though he had only been with the company for 3 years and our manager was there for 33 years. She was extremely intelligent and help 2 doctorates. That did not matter to him at all. He proceeded to tell us how things were gonna go and what was expected of us and if we couldnt work late because of children or other obligations, we didnt need to be there. He was rut hless, insulting, and degrading. Two women quite within 6 months and everyone, including the male coworker, filed complaints with HR. That being said, he was extremely smart. He had a great knowledge of the business and when he wasnt being a jerk would explain to me how the different areas of the company were affected by others. For example, how our Texas supply chain group affected sales in Italy or Germany. He helped make our Finance dept. much more efficient and even helped automate several processes. I cant say I respected him or that I liked him even a little, but I was impressed by his knowledge and skill. In a way, I find he was like Stalin and Hitler, albeit, on a much less horrendous scale. He demanded respect, had drive, and great cognitive factors, but he had a personalized power motive, and a serious lack of insight. Successful leadership is difficult and takes many years and skills to acquire.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The impact of the French Revolution on Ballet - 2183 Words

The impact of the French Revolution on Ballet The French Revolution was a bloody civil war that lasted from the years 1789-1799. [1] The revolution arose out of hard economic times that had befallen France. Widespread famine and hunger, due to a grain shortage, rampaged through sections of the country. The economic crisis led to an increase in taxes on the lower classes, known as the third estate, to upkeep the lavish lifestyle of the nobility. [1] All of these are the known factors that led to the rise of the French Revolution. The revolution emphasized the ideals of â€Å"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity† and was characterized by the strong will of the French people who stood up for what they believed in. It was also an extremely†¦show more content†¦[4] Costumes during the period immediately preceding the Revolution, commonly known as the Baroque period, were extremely showy. Dances were typically cold and extremely stylized, they did not seek to connect with the audience but rather to astound them with extreme wealth. Watching a ballet from the time period would more likely leave the audience in awe at the scenery and intricacies rather than feeling raw emotion from a moving storyline. Ballet’s that were shown in the theaters leading up to the fall of the Bastille were always subject to scrutiny and censorship. Each ballet or play that was shown on stage had to be consistent with the political and social views of the monarchy. Ballet was rooted in court life, and it was not as widely available to the common people. As such, it had to adapt in order to survive this particularly deadly and brutal period in time. The ballet’s that the court was accustomed to seeing were disconnected from the lower class, just like the actual courtiers themselves. Ballet is just one example of why exactly the French people rose up against their government. They spent massive amounts of money on an opulent lifestyle while the peasants could not even afford bread. However, just because the sty le of dance that was established was out of touch with the revolutionaries does not mean that dance did not thrive and adapt to the times. During the Revolution, ballet took on three distinct forms: ballet based inShow MoreRelatedDifference Between Ballet And Ballet1544 Words   |  7 Pagesof dance, styles including ballet or modern have changed in both technique and expression, and their popularity has constantly fluctuated. From the 16th century until present day, ballet specifically has fallen in and out of favor and gone through multiple periods of artistic scarcity to prosperity. One peak of its popularity was during the Romantic era when creativity and innovation were thriving among choreographers and dancers. Modern dance, which emerged from ballet as a way of rejecting classicalRead MoreRomantic Art And Romanticism1271 Words   |  6 Pageseach style would impact and drive the ones to come. When looking from a Romantic piece to a Post-Impressionism piece they seem so incr edibly different from each other that it’s hard to fathom their connectivity or even that the are from the same century. When looking more closely we can see the progression from one to another and how each would drive the next movement. Romanticism reflected an interesting cultural shift that came about as a direct result of the industrial revolution and urbanizationRead MoreThe Age of Poster: Pictorial Poster 774 Words   |  3 Pagesspoilts the images Compared to La Loà ¯e Fuller Chà ©ret’s Fleur de lotus of 1893 (Figure 2)is much lighter in feeling and colour pallet. In this work, six ballerinas dance over the page, promoting Armand Silvestre’s ballet et pantomime, Fleur de Lotus. This lighter, airy feeling of ballet is portrayed through these pastel colours and light fades of colour oozing from the background. The typography and main colour pallet are more considered here, and it is clear to see they work well together. HoweverRead MoreThe Influence Of The Great Mans Impact On History908 Words   |  4 Pageshearing this quote in a Cockerell documentary, its forceful and decisive tone struck me. Here was a political leader expressing a conclusive opinion. It dawned on me that if those in the highest echelons of power could hold such absolute views; their impact on history must be momentous. However, well done is better than well said and so I decided to go to the Churchill College and National Archives to inve stigate further. The experience excited my inner archivist as I was able to practise the practicalRead MoreEssay about dance5531 Words   |  23 PagesFalse  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Score:  50  Ã‚  Ã‚  (of possible 50 points) (ADDIONAL) Question 1 of 25  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Score:  2  Ã‚  Ã‚  (of possible 2 points) The French court ballet reached its height during the reign of Louis XIV, whose very birth had been celebrated by the _______________ of 1639. A. Ballet de la Fà ©licità © B. Ballet de la coutisane appelà © C. Ballet de Madame D. Ballet de la Dà ©liverance de Renaud ANS:A The dancers in the earliest ballets were highly skilled professionals capable of feats of strength and agility. True False Read MorePiano Magic By Ann Arbor Symphony Orchestra At Hill Auditorium1562 Words   |  7 PagesNo. 3 in C Major, Op. 26, and Stravinsky’s The Firebird were performed. The French composer Claude Debussy wrote the symphonic poem in 1892 and based it on Stà ©phane Mallarmà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s poem, â€Å"L aprà ¨s-midi d un Faune.† In 1917, Sergei Prokofiev composed the Piano Concerto No.3 in Brittany, France, drawing on the ideas that he obtained over a decade (Laki 7). As one of many Russian composers who were faced with the October Revolution of 1917, Prokofiev may have foreseen more freedom and success in the WestRead MoreMexico : A Great Pick For A Future Vacation2232 Words   |  9 PagesEaster they have religious parades with festivals on Good Friday and Easter Sunday. Dia de la Raza is called the â€Å" day of the race† to celebrate the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Independence Day is also celebrated. which marks the victory over the French in 1862. The se are just a few of their holidays they celebrate in their country throughout the year. Mexico has some basic native food that they like to eat such as corn, beans, and chili peppers. The Europeans introduce other foods like beefRead MoreHow Attitudes Towards Music Changed Between The Baroque And Romantic Eras2057 Words   |  9 PagesBaroque period, there was all the ‘proper’ music that was meant for dancing, that was commissioned by the upper classes such as the sarabands and allemandes. This was because elegant dancing was normally reserved for the nobility. for example, The ‘ballet de cour’ 1was established by Louis XIV of France in the early baroque period. This consisted of ballroom dancing that was more of a social event, and was a good way of the aristocracy demonstrating their etiquette skills (the way you hold yourself)Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesParadigm for an Urban World †¢ Howard Spodek 53 3 Women in the Twentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century †¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence †¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History †¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective †¢ GabrielleRead MorePhysical Fitness7979 Words   |  32 Pageshigh school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex. Requiring individuals to participate in physical education activities, such as dodge ball, flag football, and other competitive sports remains a controversial subject because of the social impact these have on young children. It is, however, important to note that many school budgets have seen cutbacks and in some cases physical education programs have been cut. Technology use in physical education New technology in Physical education is playing

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Bay of Pigs One of the Most Important Political...

The Bay of Pigs was one of the most important political decisions in the history of the United States. The decisions that were made by President John F Kennedy showed us that the United States was far from perfect. The Bay of Pigs Invasion globally embarrassed the United States because of the lack of constructed thought put into it and its completely failed outcome. The Bag of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful attempt by United States exiles to overthrow the government of the Cuban Dictator Fidel Castro. It occurred on April 17, 1961 when six ships departed from a port in Nicaragua and landed on Bahia de Cochinos (bay of pigs) on the southern coast of Cuba. This invasion was CIA backed and lead by about 1300 exiles armed with United†¦show more content†¦The invasion was launched only 77 days after President John F. Kennedy took office, so obviously he was not the one who originated the ideas of this invasion. An invasion on Cuba had been in discussion and debated since the beginning of 1960. In March of 1960, President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved a document prepared by the 5412 (Special Group) Committee at a National Security Council meeting called A Program of Covert Action against the Castro Regime. The plan included four major courses of action: 1) The creation of a responsible and unified Cuban opposition to the Castro regime located outside of Cuba, 2) The development of a means for mass communication to the Cuban people as part of a powerful propaganda offensive 3) The creation and development of a covert intelligence and action organization within Cuba which would respond to the orders and directions of the exile opposition 4) The development of a paramilitary force outside of Cuba for future guerrilla action. These goals were to be achieved â€Å"in such a manner as to avoid any appearance of U.S. intervention.† From there, the initial training for the invasion began. The CIA set up training camps in Guatemala, and within a couple of months, the operation had trained a small army for an assault landing and guerilla warfare. Josà © Mirà ³ Cardona led the anti-Castro Cuban exiles in the United States. Cardona was a former member of Castros government. After leaving Castro’sShow MoreRelatedJohn F. Kennedy s Decision Making Process1186 Words   |  5 Pagesgreat one. In considering the governmental history of the United States, John F. Kennedy is arguably among the most successful presidents to hold the mantle of commander in chief. However, this degree was not achieved due to his infallible leadership and decision making skills. For this reason, I would like to investigate the extent to which John F. Kennedy’s decision-making process changed from the Bay of Pigs Invasion to the Cuban Missile crisis during his presidency. I chose the Bay of Pigs InvasionRead MoreThe Cuban Missile Crisis Of 19621502 Words   |  7 Pagespossibly the most precarious moment in nuclear history. For the first time, the world’s two nuclear super powers, the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, were poised to destroy each other in a war of unprecedented proportion. On the brink of what may have escalated into a nuclear war, the leaders of two nations showed courageous restraint and diplomacy to avoid an exchange of brute force and unimaginable desolation. The situation was preempted by the Bay of Pigs, an unsuccessfulRead MoreThe Cuban Missile Crisis Of 19621575 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The Cold War lasted approximately from 1947 to 1991; which pitted the United States (US) against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR, Russia or Soviets). During this period of time for both military and political conflict between the two countries, there was a short period of time that not only put these two nations on alert put the rest of the world of a potential nuclear war. This period of time would come to be known as the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, which occurredRead More Cuba in the Cold War Essay1821 Words   |  8 Pages On April 17, 1961 one of the greatest foreign policy mistakes of the Cold War was made, the attempted invasion of the Bay of Pigs, Cuba. The failed invasion happened under the administration of John F. Kennedy and caused the deaths and imprisonment of over 1500 Cuban exiles fighting to over throw the rule of Fidel Castro. The aftermath caused much larger impacts towards United States foreign policy. The invasion made the United States look i mperialistic to the rest of the world and allowed theRead More Analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis Essay2520 Words   |  11 Pagesexample of one of the most terrifying events in history for the people of the world. A very real threat existed for the crisis to escalate and create World War III, which would include the annihilation of countries and cause unimaginable damage from the use of nuclear weapons by the United States and the former Soviet Union. The conflict had historical roots in the Cold War between the United States and the former Soviet Union, as well as in the history of relations between the United States and CubaRead MoreKennedy Doctrine3116 Words   |  13 PagesThe Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. Kennedy voiced support for the containment of Communism and the reversal of Communist progress in the West ern Hemisphere. The Kennedy Doctrine was essentially an expansion of the foreign policy prerogatives of the previous administrations of Dwight D. Eisenhower and Harry S. Truman. The foreign policiesRead MoreEisenhower, Kennedy, and the Significance of Presidential Leadership973 Words   |  4 PagesEisenhower, Kennedy, and the Significance of Presidential Leadership When the World War II finally ended, the United States was the most powerful country the history has ever witnessed. Politically, economically, and militarily, the United States possessed an unmatched power. The Soviet Union soon built a comparable nuclear force but was far behind economically. The enormous power the United States possessed forced it to assume the responsibility of leading the Western world in the struggle against CommunismRead MoreThe Bay Of Pigs Invasion Into Cuba2257 Words   |  10 PagesThe Bay of Pigs invasion into Cuba can be seen as one of the most important political decisions in the history of the United States. Four months after John F. Kennedy took office as the thirty fifth President of the United States, he was blamed for the failed invasion of the Bay of Pigs. The failure was due to the lack of bad advice he received and then used to put into making his decision to invade. The decisions he made showed that the United States President and his Joint Chi efs were far fromRead MoreWorld War II2304 Words   |  10 PagesPeople cried, ran, bellowed for help, but they could not escape from being vaporized by the massive power of this nuclear weapon. Casualties are inevitable in wars, but casualties can be reduced. Throughout the history, one of the most massive destructive actions was when the United States dropped atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. World War Two started in 1939 and lasted until 1945. It was triggered when Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany at that time, took over PolandRead MoreFidel Castro Is The Man Associated With The Failure And1037 Words   |  5 PagesThis essay will explore his role and influence in one of humanity s darkest moments, the Cuban missile crisis, which was a defining moment in Castro’s political life. As the leader of Cuba during the Cold War and Cuban missile crisis, he was responsible for defending Cuba sovereignty and interests amongst the superpower - the United States and Soviet Union. Memoirs would argue that former US President Kennedy believed Castro was a very important player in the Cold War while others believed he was

Lenzing Ag Case free essay sample

Lenzing AG is one of the worlds largest rayon fiber manufacturers, originating in Lenzing, Austria. In 1938 Lenzing AG was founded, starting pulp and viscose fiber production. Up until the 1980’s, Lenzing was a company that held its production and management in the same country and town where the company had originated. Until one day , the Chairman of Lenzing had agreed to go into a joint partnership with an international investor. The joint venture was with an Indian entrepreneur by the name of Ashok Birla, who saw opportunity in Indonesia for Lenzing and the rayon industry within. Lenzing viewed this as an opportunity to break out of their domestic Austrian market, and tap into Indonesia’s none existent textile market. The resulting partnership would be South Pacific Viscose (SPV). In the beginning, SPV was the only producer of rayon textiles in Indonesia, and by 1994 had grown to be successful, more so than Lenzing management had originally thought. We will write a custom essay sample on Lenzing Ag Case or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Over the years, there began to be an increase in competition throughout Indonesia, although none reaching the capacity of production that SPV was reaching each year. Lenzing and SPV began to view some long term potential problems as the years went on, with tariffs and trade barriers becoming an issue, as well as potential political problems in Indonesia possibly effecting the company in the future. Problem Statement In 1994, Lenzing AG, the worlds largest rayon manufacturer, is deciding whether to expand production in South Pacific Viscose, its Indonesian subsidiary. Lenzing has viewed Indonesia as a booming market for rayon, and see’s a lot of potential for growth in international markets, but management still has some concerns about the expansion. First, in order for the plant to remain successful, Lenzings primary customers, textile producers, must remain in Indonesia in order to cut the costs of international tariffs. If SPV plans to create a strong stream of income from these plants, they would need to cut costs, because despite being located in an area of tropical forests, the Indonesian plant has no local access to wood pulp, its most critical input. Although Indonesia is home to about 14 pulp producers, none of these producers have made the switch from paper grade pulp, to dissolving grade, which is essential in the creation of rayon. With having to import its most important ingredient internationally, they will need to cut costs wherever they can. As well, there is the fact that the booming business in Indonesia could slow down at anytime, due to the slow down in the consumption of clothing. With that said, people may slow down buying clothes, but also, as companies begin to look for more and more ways to cut costs, textile producers in Indonesia may be drawn away to other countries such as China or India, and Lenzing would be unable to compete with their low labour costs. Finally, with the expansion, Lenzing is increasing its exposure in Indonesia, though at first was viewed a stable country, both economically and politically is now beginning to become less and less balanced. As Indonesia’s leader Suharto, is planning to relinquish his power several years after the expansion. As Indonesia will become a more democratic state, you would think that this would create a better political and economical country, although its effects could end poorly for Lenzing. S. W. O. T Analysis Lenzing has been in operations for over 50 years, and up until their merger with Ashok Birla, had been producing only in Austria. As a company who has been producing rayon for many years, I believe that one of the company’s keys strengths is their management. When originally considering the expansion to Indonesia, Lenzings management was against it, but after carefully considering the potential growth they could they could have in an untapped market, the expansion happened. With strong organizations comes strong management, and a company like Lenzing should use this to their advantage. Although Lenzing is up against many threats, I don’t believe that there are many current weaknesses within the company, although there are some things that are hurting the company. As a producer of rayon, Lenzing’s most important fundamental constituent is dissolving grade pulp. This is a rather uncommon form of pulp, in which they have been purchasing from Brazil to their production plant in Indonesia. This would be viewed as a weakness, as in Indonesia there are 14 pulp producers, none with the technology to create the dissolving grade pulp, but pulp none the less. I believe that Lenzing has an opportunity to create an agreement with one or more of these local pulp producers, to enable them to produce the necessary grade of pulp. As rayon requires a large amount of pulp for its production, they have purchased a percentage of a company in Brazil to meet their pulp needs. For Lenzing, this was a valuable purchase and has made it possible for them to continue the production of rayon in Indonesia. Although, I believe that there is an opportunity locally that would satisfy their need for pulp. Indonesia has 14 producers of pulp, none of them with the technology to create the required grade that is needed in the production of rayon. Rather than purchasing a percentage of the pulp company in brazil, and having to ship the pulp time after time internationally, it could have been a more economical transaction with the Indonesian pulp companies. There could have been an opportunity to create an agreement with several of these companies, in which, Lenzing provide them with the necessary technology to produce this grade of pulp, in exchange for a certain amount of pulp production going to them each year. As a company that is aiming to grow both internally as a company as well as internationally, Lenzing has created opportunities that have given them the chance to do so. At the same time, there are threats that are visible to the company that should be addressed. One being that the direction the government in Indonesia is heading could be a bad one. Despite Indonesia’s drive for democracy, this could affect Lenzing in a negative way. For example, since gaining its independence in 1949, Indonesia has been ruled by only two men, Sukarno and Suharto, both of whom had tight control over all levels of power, using force in most cases to accomplish their intentions. With that being said, if Indonesia were to become a democratic state, foreign companies may loose many of their agreements with past leaders and be forced to do business elsewhere. Recommendation It could be recommended that SPV stay in Indonesia and continue production. In 1993, sales rose by 18% since the previous year, with growth like that, I would recommend that they continue with planning on the Third Line and continue to expand their capacity. A potential opportunity is at hand with the departure of Suharto and this could give SPV the chance to completely dominate the textile industry in Indonesia. If SPV were able to form an agreement with pulp producers in Indonesia, this could be a large step forward in the path of success. I believe that if this is done, they will have no added costs of bringing in materials

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

The Crucible Act free essay sample

This meant that God chose each person from birth for salvation or damnation. Only God knew the fate of a person and nothing you did would change it. They lived very strict lives that adhered to the divine law and you were condemned if you didn’t obey it. 2. When Abigail accuses Tituba of witchcraft just to get the pressure off of her and so that they would stop asking her questions. More evidence is found when we discover the affair between Abigail and proctor which could be the reason why Abigail tries to hide the truth about what really happened. An alternative is that they just wanted to do something daring and fun because Puritans were very strict and they didn’t have that much freedom. Or they wanted to use witchcraft to make potions to get men to fall in love with them. 3. Reverend Paris is the minister of Salem. We will write a custom essay sample on The Crucible Act or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He caught his daughter Betty, Ruth Putnam, and Abigail Williams dancing with Tituba in the woods. He thinks they were performing witchcraft and now he’s worried that he’ll be kicked out of the town for having a witch as a daughter. He is a paranoid, attention seeking, self-absorbed person. Most people in the town don’t like him. 4. Thomas Putnam was a very wealthy man who wanted to increase his wealth buy accusing people of witchcraft and then buying their land. Ann Putnam is Thomas Putnam’s wife who is woman who has experienced many deaths and has bad dreams. She thinks that witchcraft was the reason that she had 7 stillborn children, so she’s okay with blaming these deaths on the supernatural and wants justice for the â€Å"wicked doings† of someone else. Ruth Putnam is the only surviving child of the Putnams. She fell ill along with Betty after Reverend Parris found them dancing in the woods. Ruth goes to Tituba to conjure spirits so she’d be able to communicate with her dead siblings because her mother asked her to. 5. It became suspicious when we found out that Elizabeth didn’t want to sit near Abigail (whom she fired), despite the fact that Abigail has denied doing anything wrong. The commentary gives us a bit of background information and helps us understand some of the things going on in the story. On page 1241 the 5 paragraphs of commentary go into detail about Thomas Putnam, discussing his background life and personality. From this commentary we now know that Putnam was very wealthy and he felt like he had superiority over everyone else. He has a vindictive, revengeful, and bitter personality. This gives us insight into the character so that we can deeply understand them which will help us grasp the story better.

Monday, March 16, 2020

Achieving Parallel Structure in Sentences with Parenthesis

Achieving Parallel Structure in Sentences with Parenthesis Achieving Parallel Structure in Sentences with Parenthesis Achieving Parallel Structure in Sentences with Parenthesis By Mark Nichol When a sentence includes a form of parenthesis- a word, phrase, or clause framed by a pair of commas, dashes, or parentheses- writers must take care that the statement surrounding the interjection is structurally valid so that if the optional parenthesis is omitted, the remaining wording is still coherent. To test whether the sentence’s composition is complete, temporarily omit the interjection, then repair any syntactical and grammatical issues that manifest themselves before reinstating (or restating) the parenthesis. 1. He is considered to be one of, if not the, deadliest assassin in the empire. This sentence, without the parenthesis, is â€Å"He is considered to be one of deadliest assassin in the empire.† This faulty construction demonstrates that the article the must appear in the main clause before the interjection to form a complete sentence, and assassin must be in plural form to correspond with the modifying phrase â€Å"one of the† (â€Å"He is considered to be one of the deadliest assassins in the empire†); in addition, a repetition of deadliest must be inserted into the parenthesis to form a complete thought: â€Å"He is considered one of the deadliest assassins, if not the deadliest, in the empire.† (The extraneous â€Å"to be† has been deleted as well.) 2. Effective risk management can help predict- and prevent- major implementation problems from occurring. In this case, the wording that remains after the parenthesis is excised- â€Å"Effective risk management can help predict major implementation problems from occurring†- is syntactically flawed, because â€Å"from occurring† modifies prevent but not predict. For the sentence to make sense, that phrase should be inserted into the interjection: â€Å"Effective risk management can help predict- and prevent from occurring- major implementation problems.† Better yet, integrate the interjection (with a pronoun standing in for a repeat of â€Å"major implementation problems†) into the main clause: â€Å"Effective risk management can help predict major implementation problems and prevent them from occurring.† 3. This has not (and should not) prevent smart companies from taking advantage of innovation. With the parenthesis in this sentence removed, the remaining statement is â€Å"This has not prevent smart companies from taking advantage of innovation.† Because â€Å"has not† and â€Å"should not† must be accompanied by differing forms of prevent, both forms of the verb, one in the main clause and one in the parenthesis, should be employed: â€Å"This has not prevented (and should not prevent) smart companies from taking advantage of innovation.† Note that the three forms of punctuation are interchangeable, although their functions vary slightly: Commas are neutral, parentheses suggest that the information is incidental, and dashes signal information that is divergent or unexpected. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Good At, Good In, and Good With26 Feel-Good WordsSit vs. Set

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Attitudes of Health Care Providers to Persons with HIV/AIDS

Attitudes of Health Care Providers to Persons with HIV/AIDS Attitudes of Health Care Providers to Persons Living With HIV/AIDS in   Lagos State, Nigeria Sylvia Bolanle Adebajo1, Abisola O Bamgbala1 and Muriel A Oyediran2    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to examine the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of nurses and  laboratory technologists towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) and the factors  responsible for these attitudes. Information was elicited from 254 randomly selected  nurses and laboratory technologists from 15 government owned health facilities in Lagos  State with the use of a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that most of the  respondents (96.3%) had moderate to good knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Respondents’ level  of knowledge was influenced by the level of formal education attained, length of practice,  gender and attendance at refresher courses on HIV/AIDS (p 0.05). Attitude towards PLWA was poor. Some (55.9%) of the health  workers felt that PLWAs are responsible for their il lness, while 35.4% felt that they  deserve the punishment for their sexual misbehaviours. Only 52.8% of the respondents  expressed willingness to work in the same office with a PLWA, while only 18.0% would  accept to visit or encourage their children to visit a PLWA, probably because of the fear of  contagion. It is, therefore, essential that health care providers be properly informed in  order to improve their quality of care for PLWAs. (Afr J Reprod Health 2003; 7[1]: 103-  112)    KEY WORDS: AIDS, HIV, attitude, health care providers, PLWA INTRODUCTION From the beginning of the pandemic in 1981 to date, HIV has continued to spread at the  rate of more than 10,000 new cases per day despite significant efforts made to contain its  spread.1 If this trend persists unchecked, a cumulative total of over 60 million adults  would have been infected by the end of the year 2000 with the largest number (63%)  emerging from sub-Saharan Africa.2 Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa is not spared, as the epidemic continues to  show a rapidly increasing trend with a median prevalence of over 5% and over two  million people already infected. With the increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS, AIDS control and  preventive strategies must not only continue to encourage behavioural modifications by  all, but should also highlight the need to respect the rights to care of the increasing number  of people with HIV/AIDS. In addition, there should be full integration of these persons  within the context of their families and the society at large in the most appropriate ways  that would allow them to continue to live productive lives socially and economically. In reality, however, the fear of being infected at workplaces, educational institutions and  in the community has led to irrational and discriminatory treatment of people living with  HIV/AIDS (PLWA). Their rights to employment, housing, education and even health and  nursing care are being violated because of their HIV status.5-7 This practice unfortunately  exists despite strong evidence from research that has revealed that non-sexual contact with  HIV positive individuals carries little or no risk.5, 8-11 This is even more so if careful  precautions with blood products are taken, as this further protects people from contracting  the infection.    Health care providers, who are also members of the general community, are likely to elicit  similar prejudicial and fearful reactions to HIV/AIDS infected persons as members of the  community. The resultant effects of such negative attitudes include poor patient  management, with people being denied most needed treatment, care and support. This in  turn could affect their morale, self-esteem and self-determination to live quality lives  devoid of stigma, fear, repression and discrimination. Maintaining the desired quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS is poss ible mainly  through extensive, competent and compassionate nursing care. Yet, the provision of this  care raises health and occupational concerns for all levels of health care providers. There  is, therefore, an urgent need for all health care providers, particularly nurses who have  direct contact and spend more time with patients, to examine their personal attitudes  towards PLWAs, as this can compromise compassionate care. This study is aimed at determining the level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of nurses  and laboratory technologists towards HIV/AIDS infected persons and to recommend  appropriate measures to address the deficiencies identified.   MATERIALS AND METHODS This descriptive cross-sectional survey of three hundred registered nurses and laboratory  health technologists was conducted between July and September 1999 in Lagos State, the  most populous state in Nigeria. It was conducted to assess their level of knowledge of the  causes, m odes of transmission and methods prevention of HIV/AIDS and their attitudes to  people living with HIV/AIDS using a well structured, self-administered questionnaire that  contained 44 items. With permission sought from all relevant authorities, selected respondents who gave their full consent to participate in the study were recruited. Prior to this, they were duly  informed about the general nature and purpose of the study and their right to withdraw at  any time without prejudice to their present or future employment. Respondents’ level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS was computed by judging their answers to  the causes, modes of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS. A mark was awarded for  every correct response to a set of questions and no mark was awarded for incorrect  responses. The total mark obtainable was sixteen and the levels of knowledge based on the  highest scores attainable were as follows: 0-9 = poor knowledge; 10-12 = fair knowledge;  and 1 3-16 = good knowledge. Similarly, respondents’ attitude to PLWA was also assessed quantitatively judging from  the proportion of `yes’ responses to individual questions asked on how they would react,  relate or treat PLWAs. These responses were computed individually.   Sampling From a comprehensive list of government-owned health facilities in the Lagos metropolis,  fifteen health facilities were randomly selected by simple balloting. From each selected  health facility, a list of names of nurses and laboratory technologists was obtained from  the respective medical directors. From the list, respondents were selected by stratified  sampling method using a ratio of two laboratory technologists to three trained nurses. A  maximum of 20 health workers comprising thirteen nurses and seven laboratory  technologists were recruited from each health facility. To ensure anonymity and confidentiality, respondents in each health facility were  requeste d to drop their completed questionnaires devoid of personal identities into sealed  boxes provided by the study team. The questionnaires were administered and collected in  the boxes provided by the principal investigator assisted by four experienced and trained  interviewers. Two hundred and fifty four questionnaires (84.6%) were returned at the end of the data  collection exercise. Data obtained were crosschecked for consistency and analysed using  the statistical analysis software (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, C). RESULTS Two hundred and fifty four health workers comprising one hundred and four (40.9%)  laboratory technologists and one hundred and fifty nurses (59.1%) were surveyed. There  was a disproportionate sex distribution of 181 (71.3%) females and 73 (28.7%) males.   Many (56.7%) of them were aged between 30 and 39 years with a mean age of 36.0 years  (SD 6.42). Less than half of the respondents had practiced for 10-15 years with an average duration of 10.4 years (SD 5.64). Over three quarters of the respondents were  Christians and the majority of them had been sponsored by their health facilities to attend  at least one refresher course on HIV/AIDS. Levels of Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Two hundred and forty respondents (94.5%) claimed that they had seen at least one case  of AIDS. Based on a total of 16 marks, one hundred respondents (39.4%) had very good  knowledge, one hundred and forty five (57.1%) had fair knowledge, while only nine  (3.5%) had poor knowledge. A high level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS was displayed by  respondents who had higher level of formal education compared to those with lower levels  (p = 0.016). The longer the length of practice, the higher the level of knowledge (p =  0.0003); more males (40.6%) than females (37.5%) had excellent scores on knowledge (p= 0.009); and attending a refresher course on HIV/AIDS was associated with a higher  level of knowledge (p = 0.01). In contrast, age, occupation and religion did not  significantly influence the level of knowledge of respondents (p > 0.05). Although the overall level of knowledge of the modes of transmission and methods of  prevention was fair, there were some deficiencies and misconceptions. (Table 1)   Causes and Modes of Transmission of HIV Over ninety five per cent of the respondents knew the causes of AIDS and correctly  identified heterosexual intercourse, blood transfusion and sharp instruments as some  modes of transmission of HIV. However, in addition to these, some respondents believed  that HIV could also be transmitted through insect bites (15.7%), hugging or touching an  infected person (9.4%), sharing the same toilet and cooking utensils with an infected  person (9.4%), and by having skin contact with an infected person (27.1%).   High Risk Target Population People who indulge in prostitution, homosexuality and multiple sexual partnering were  correctly identified by ove r 90% of the respondents as groups of people at high risk of  contracting HIV. However, an appreciable proportion (50%) of the respondents failed to  identify commercial drivers, adolescents and drug addicts as other high risk groups. Likewise, the respondents had poor knowledge of the groups of people least likely to  contract HIV. For example, 72.4% and 92.1% respectively of the respondents incorrectly  identified patients in hospital and health care providers as groups also at high risk of  contracting HIV/AIDS. Areas of Misconception Identified    Some degree of homophobia was detected among the respondents. Over one third of the  them felt that all homosexuals have AIDS. A large proportion of the respondents (82.7%)  did not know that women are at increased risk of contracting or transmitting HIV during  their menstrual period. A few of the respondents (18.1%) felt that AIDS is curable if  treatment is commenced early. Although 94.5% of the respond ents correctly identified blood as a vehicle of transmission  of HIV, only 81.1% and 71.7% correctly identified vaginal and semen secretions  respectively. Furthermore, 69.9%, 78.0% and 76.4% of the respondents respectively  thought that HIV can be transmitted through saliva, tears and sweat.   Attitudes of Respondents to People Living with HIV/AIDS Two hundred and thirty eight respondents (93.7%) believed that HIV/AIDS is a serious  threat to health workers and 87% believed that treating PLWA puts them at increased risk  of contracting HIV. Many of the respondents (79.5%) believed that an HIV infected  person poses a great danger to others, 34.7% felt that HIV infected persons should be  isolated, over half (55.9%) felt that AIDS patients are responsible for their illness, and 90  (34.4%) felt that they deserve the consequences of their reckless life as a form of  punishment from God. Many (89.8%), however, felt that they do not deserve to die.  Majority ( 94.5%) felt that they deserve to be treated with empathy and understanding and  given the best medical care possible. Whilst many of the respondents felt that persons with AIDS should be allowed to live  their normal lives, i.e., to continue working or schooling, 44 (17.3%) believed that they  should be relieved of their jobs and 50 (19.7%) recommended that students infected with  AIDS should be expelled from school. The majority of respondents (91.3%) claimed that they would retain their friendship with  PLWAs, 154 (52.8%) expressed their willingness to work in the same office with an  AIDS patient and only 46 (18.0%) said they would visit or encourage their children to  visit an AIDS patient. Attitude of Health Workers towards Treatment of HIV/AIDS Patients Ninety three per cent of the respondents accepted that they are duty bound to treat all ill  ersons irrespective of their HIV status and agreed to treat persons known to be infected  with HIV/AIDS. A l ower percentage (87.4%) agreed to examine or touch them. Most of  the respondents (87.4%) advocated for the screening of all patients prior to admission into  the wards particularly those admitted for surgical procedures, but only 108 (42.5%) would  encourage the admission of PLWAs to the wards.    Respondents’ Level of Awareness of the Universal Precautions against HIV Two hundred and eight respondents (81.9%) were aware of and had read the universal  precautions for health workers, while only 66 (26.0%) were aware of its existence at their  workplaces. Only about half (52.4%) were privileged to attend a refresher course on HIV/AIDS, and when asked almost all the respondents expressed the desire to attend a  refresher course on HIV/AIDS if given the opportunity. Attitudes of Health Workers to HIV Screening Only seventy respondents (28.0%) had been screened for HIV. Of these, 31.4% were  screened prior to blood donation, 45.7% out of curiosity or for p ersonal interests, 17.1%  either on doctor’s advice or for routine antenatal check, and 5.7% for travel requirements.  Other respondents (72.0%) had never been screened because of fear (18.5%), high cost of  the test(s) (9.8%), and a strong conviction that they will never be infected (71.7%).   However, many of the respondents (83.5%) said they were willing to be tested if HIV  screening is provided free of charge. All the respondents unanimously agreed that HIV  screening should be made free for all health workers. More respondents aged 30-39 years (37.5%) had been screened for HIV when compared  with 11.1% and 16.2% of those aged 20-29 years and above 40 years respectively (p =  0.0001). More male respondents (46.6%) had been screened for HIV compared to 20.3%  of females (p = 0.0003). The longer the length of practice, the less likely it was for  respondents to have been screened (p = 0.03). Also, 34.6% of the laboratory technologists  were screen ed, compared to 23.3% of nurses although this difference was weakly  statistically significant (p = 0.049). In contrast, the level of formal education and religion of respondents did not significantly  influence whether or not they were screened for HIV (p > 0.05). DISCUSSION Until recently, HIV/AIDS control programmes in Nigeria had focused primarily on  preventing the spread of HIV through behaviour modifications. However, with the  growing number of PLWAs, there is increasing concern on the crucial role of the health  care delivery system in providing wide range of care and support. This has become  inevitable as almost every person living with HIV is bound to fall sick at one time or the  other, thereby requiring medical care from health workers who are well trained and  willing to provide such care. The study revealed that a significant proportion (96.5%) of the study subjects had  appreciable (moderate to high scores) knowledge of the causes and preve ntion of HIV/ AIDS. However, in spite of this, there existed many gaps in their knowledge of HIV and  they had various misconceptions regarding how HIV/AIDS can be transmitted. In  addition, a strong apprehension on how to handle the contagious nature of the disease was  revealed. Most of the respondents (96.0%) knew the causative agent of AIDS to be a virus and the  main modes of transmission to be sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, sharing sharp  objects and perinatal transmission. However, there were also erroneous beliefs by the  majority of the respondents that the HIV could be transmitted through insect bites  (84.3%), touching and hugging (90.6%), sharing of toilet facilities with infected persons  (90.6%), and poor levels of health and nutrition (92.9%). Okotie et al, in their study  amongst civil servants, reported much lower figures of 36.8% and 37.9% on the sharing of  utensils and casual kissing respectively as other modes of transmission.   Epidemiological studies throughout the world have reported only three main modes of  HIV transmission. One is through sexual intercourse with an infected person; second,  through exposure to blood, blood products or transplanted organs or tissues; and third,  from an infected mother to her fetus or infant before, during or shortly after birth.  Casual contacts such as touching, hugging and kissing an infected person with HIV/AIDS  do not result in HIV transmission.18 Respondents had varied knowledge of people at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Whilst a significant proportion correctly identified prostitutes (100%), homosexuals (93.7%), people with multiple sexual partners (94.4%), only 64.6%, 44.4% and 45.2% ofthe respondents respectively correctly identified intravenous drug users, commercial  drivers and adolescents as other high risk groups. In addition, many of them did not seem  to know groups of people who are least likely to contract HIV/AIDS. For exampl e, 92.1%  and 72.4% of the respondents felt that health workers and in-patients are at very high risk  of contracting HIV. Odujinrin et al reported much lower figures (51.5%) of health workers  who identified homosexuals as a high risk group. Studies have suggested that the risk of nosocomial transmission of HIV is extremely low  (0.3%) even after accidental parenteral inoculation.6,8,17,20-21 The incidence of HIV  infection resulting from needle stick injury is a rare event with only 41 cases reported  worldwide.